7.6.1 Chapter 12: Traffic and Transport of the PEIR identifies and assesses the potential environmental effects on traffic and transport arising from the Project.
7.6.2 The traffic and transport environmental effects on severance, driver delay, driver stress, view from the road, pedestrian and cyclist delay and amenity, accidents and safety, hazardous loads, and public transport services and users have been assessed.
7.6.3 The assessment of the environmental effects of traffic and transport has been based on the relevant guidance from the Institute of Environmental Assessment.
7.6.4 Strategic modelling work has informed the assessment undertaken to date. The modelling work has been undertaken in consultation with Highways England and the relevant highway authorities.
7.6.5 Desk studies have been undertaken to inform the baseline conditions and update GAL’s modelling tools to assess the likely effects of the Project.
7.6.6 A number of site-specific surveys of the Project site were also undertaken to inform the assessment including traffic counts, employee surveys, journey time data and airport-related cargo and goods movement data.
7.6.7 For the purposes of this assessment, the receptors are considered to be pedestrians, cyclists, bus and coach passengers, rail passengers, and car drivers and passengers.
7.6.8 Gatwick Airport can be directly accessed from the national strategic road network via the M23 motorway, which runs north-south adjacent to the airport. Junction 9 of the M23 is the main access point, with an onward link of dual carriageway motorway (M23 Spur) to Junction 9a at the South Terminal roundabout.
7.6.9 The A23, which runs parallel to the M23, continues north beyond the M25 into London via Croydon and Brixton to the West End and the City. It connects south London and Croydon, through Redhill then Horley and Gatwick Airport, through Crawley and providing a connection to the south through Pease Pottage to Brighton.
7.6.10 Transport facilities within the airport boundary are made up of on-airport roads, forecourts and car parks, including facilities for coaches, taxis and car rental companies. GAL has recently completed works to improve the North Terminal forecourt.
7.6.11 Gatwick Airport has a very high level of rail connectivity, with 22 trains to and from central London in the morning peak hour (12 via London Bridge and 10 to London Victoria, of which four are Gatwick Express services).
7.6.12 The airport is served by frequent bus and coach services at both North and South Terminals. The operators include Metrobus, National Express, Megabus, Oxford Bus Company, and easyBus. On average there are approximately 450 and 500 daily arrivals and departures respectively, offering services to destinations throughout the UK.
7.6.13 There are off-road pedestrian and cycle links available, which provide access to the local catchment areas of Horley and Crawley. National Cycle Route 21 provides a continuous route between Crawley, Gatwick, Horley, Reigate and London. Route 20 continues south towards Brighton and Route 21 continues east towards Royal Tunbridge Wells before heading south towards Eastbourne.
7.6.14 As part of the Project, measures have been incorporated to reduce the potential for significant effects on traffic and transport. This includes highway improvement works to the North and South Terminal roundabouts, which involve grade-separated (flyover) solutions. The Longbridge roundabout is proposed to be substantially improved, providing full-width running lanes throughout the junction, replacing the sub-standard narrow lanes that currently exist.
7.6.15 Other mitigation measures include Road Safety Audit and the implementation of a Construction Traffic Management Plan and Travel Plan.
7.6.16 Ongoing monitoring of travel patterns is expected to ensure the success of the Travel Plan and to implement measures to further encourage the use of sustainable modes of transport as part of the Airport Surface Access Strategy. Annual reporting will be undertaken to assess the performance against targets.
7.6.17 The assessment shows that, given the existing high traffic flows on the highway network, the Project is not expected to generate substantial traffic flows beyond the local highways. However, due to redistribution effects, the strategic modelling work shows that there could be some increases in traffic flows in areas such as Croydon during certain times of day (which are not as a result of the Project), particularly during the interim assessment year 2032.
7.6.18 Within the vicinity of the airport, there are segregated pedestrian and cycle routes which reduce the sensitivities of the highway links. The proposed highway works as part of the Project would improve pedestrian and cycle routes and reduce junction conflicts, which would improve safety and minimise the risk of accidents.
7.6.19 Construction of highway improvements is expected to take place after the main airport construction activities are complete. Construction would be undertaken with the aim of minimising disruption both to airport and local traffic.
7.6.20 Based on the methodology, assessment criteria and assignment of significance set out in this chapter, the majority of identified effects would not be significant. However, for a small number of road links, potentially significant effects on car drivers/passengers (in terms of driver delay) and, in one case, on pedestrians and cyclists (in terms of severance) have been identified. This will be considered further as the EIA process continues and it is anticipated that with further measures in place, long term effects would not be significant.
7.6.21 Cumulative traffic and transport effects are inherently included in the future baseline scenarios modelled within the assessment.